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Valmont Structures Canada Glossary

Glossary of Terms

   
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A

AASHTO
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Governing body responsible for the following pole specification: "Standard Specifications for Structural Supports for Highway Signs, Luminaires, and Traffic Signals."

ABD
Anchor Bolt Diameter.

ACORN NUT
Decorative anchor bolt nut with enclosed rounded top.

A/F or OD
Across the Flats or outside diameter.

AGENT
Representative of manufactured products and responsible for communication, sales and service of customers within a specified region.

AISC
American Institute of Steel Construction

ALLOWABLE STRESS
Maximum permissible stress as defined by design criteria.

ALLOY
A compound mixture consisting of one or more base elements (metal) to achieve desired physical or mechanical properties. Examples of different aluminum allows are as follows: 6063: Standard pole and arm shaft material.
    4043: Standard aluminum welding electrode.
    5356: Standard aluminum welding electrode.
    6061: Special pole and arm shaft material.
    356: Standard flange base casting material.

ALUMINUM
A silver-white non-ferrous metallic element whose features and physical properties include: a good resistance to temperature variations, high reflectivity, resistance to oxidation, ductility, light weight, and recyclable.

ANCHOR BASE
See "Fixed Base"

ANCHOR BOLT
Threaded steel rod embedded into concrete and used to connect the pole to the foundation.

ANODIZING
The process of coating a metallic surface electrolytically. This process normally involves the combination of electrical current and chemical bath in which the material's surface or "skin" is altered to form a protective shield for the remaining material

ANSI
American National Standards Institute

APPROVAL DRAWING   
Formal drawing submitted to customer for their review to determine acceptability of product.

ARCHITECTURAL COATING
Special finish coating designed to give the appearance of concrete, marble, granite or sandstone.

ARGON
Inert gas element utilized as a shielding component of "gas metal arc welding" (GMAW) or "metal inert gas welding" (MIG). Generally utilized when welding aluminum or like materials.

ARM
A single extension of any cross section used to mount a single fixture.

ARM RISE
The vertical distance from the center line of the simplex connection to the center line of the arm end.

ARTIFICIAL AGING
Process of heating and cooling a material in a controlled manner to develop desired mechanical properties. (See also heat treat).

ASTM
American Society for Testing and Materials

ASTRO BRACKET
Device used to attach a traffic signal to the pole or mast arm. Normally rigid mounted, but can also be free swinging.

AWS
American Welding Society

AXIAL FORCE
Force along the longitudinal axis of a member. When designing a foundation this figure relates to the weight of a structure plus any added devices or equipment.

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B

BACK-UP-BAR
Steel bar used to secure the handhole cover.

BACK-UP-RING
Steel ring used for full-penetration welded connections.

BACKPLATE
Border surrounding traffic signal heads.

BANNER ARMS
Two parallel pipe extensions bolted along the pole shaft used to mount a special banner.

BASE COVER
See "Full Base Cover"

BASE FLANGE
Cast component welding to the bottom of the pole shaft used to connect the structure to the foundation. (Also called base casting and shoe base).

BASE PLATE
Steel plate welded to the bottom of the pole shaft used to connect the structure to the foundation.

BASE REACTIONS (POLE)
Shear force, axial force, and bending moment occurring at the pole base, used for foundation design.

BCD
Bolt Circle Diameter - Bolt center to center distance on the diagonal.

BEARING PLATE
Steel plate attached to the bottom of an anchor bolt designed to prevent bolt pull-out.

BEND RADIUS
The radial dimension corresponding to the curvature of a bent member, usually measured from the inside surface.

BENDING MOMENT
The product of a wind force or weight force multiplied by its distance from a section.

BOLLARD
A decorative post used as a pedestrian or traffic barrier. Sometimes strung with chains.

BOLT
Metal rod or pin used for fastening objects together that usually has a head at one end and a screw thread at the other.

BOLT CHORD
Dimension measured between two adjacent anchor bolts which do not intersect the center line of the foundation. This dimension may vary between each individual chord.

BOLT CIRCLE
Dimension measured from one anchor bolt to another which intersects the center line of the pattern. This dimension will remain equal for all bolts, regardless of quantity of bolts.

BOLT COVER
A decorative cast cover usually fastened to the base flange covering the anchor bolt.

BOLT LOAD
Force along the axis of a bolt.

BOLT PROJECTION
Length of anchor bolt extending above the foundation surface.

BREAKAWAY COUPLING
Device used to connect the pole to the anchor bolts, and designed to fracture when the pole is impacted by a vehicle. The main purpose being to assure passenger safety.

BSQ
Bolt Square - Bolt center to center distance on square.

BULLHORN
Steel pipe formed with a 90 degree upward bend used to mount fixtures, speakers, cameras, etc.

BUMP FORMED
Method of manufacturing a flat steel plate into structural shape. The plate is bent by a brake press usually at equal spacings, forming the desired shape.

BUTT WELD
Circumferential weld joint used to connect two shaft sections or a shaft to a plate with or without a back-up ring.
American Institute of Steel Construction
   
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C

C-HOOK
Steel rod formed into shape of a "C" and used for wire support or handling purposes.

C.B.C
Canadian Building Code

C.S.A
Canadian Standards Association

C.S.R.
(Combined Stress Ratio) Summation of ratios of applied stresses over allowable stresses. Included stresses are bending, shear and axial.

C.W.B.
Canadian Welding Bureau

CAD
Computer-Aided Design

CAGE PLATFORM
A platform that consists of formed steel tubing, support angles and steel grating to safely support a service person and a cluster of lighting fixtures.

CALCULATIONS
Formal structural analysis to be presented to the customer, proving adequacy of the structure to the design criteria requirements.

CAMBER
Curving of sign structure chords, mast arms or poles during the manufacturing process. The curved displacement from center line is equal and opposite to the deflection expected in the field. The structure, therefore, appears straight after loads are appli

CAPITAL
Ornamental pole top.

CANTILEVER
Structure fixed at one end and free at the other. A pole is a vertical cantilever and a mast arm is a horizontal cantilever.

CASTING
Product which is manufactured by means of molding in a form with a molten alloy.

CERTIFICATION
A document containing a confirmation that the product and/or design meets or exceeds some specifically stated conditions.

CITY SCAPE
Unique design style in traffic control and lighting structures incorporating modular components.
CLAMSHELL BASE
A 2-piece shell base bolted around the pole base after installation.

CLEARANCE
The vertical distance from the roadway surface to the lowest point of an overhanging device.

COATING
Process of covering a product with one of or a combination of the following: galvanizing, painting and/or metallizing.

COBRA HEAD
Generic term for some street lighting fixtures.

COIL MATERIAL
Any steel which is rolled into coil form after processing from the mill.

COMMISSION
A fee paid to a representative for transacting a piece of business or performing a service.

CONTROLLER CABINET
Metal cabinet that houses components used to operate the electrical system. Components could include items such as terminal strips, timers, and circuit breakers.

COR-TEN
Trade name by United States Steel Company for high strength, low alloy, self-weathering steel. This material has enhanced atmospheric corrosion resistance when compared with ordinary carbon steels. The enhanced corrosion resistance may permit the use of t

COUPLING
Internally threaded steel fitting used for wiring access and attachment of controller cabinets, junction boxes or other related devices.

CRITERIA
A written specification used to control the design of a structure.

CROSSARM
A length of steel tubing or angle that attaches to a pole shaft with provisions for mounting a single row of lighting fixtures.

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D

DD
Double Davit pole with two arms.
  
DAMPER
Mechanical device used to eliminate or reduce harmonic vibrations. (See also vibration damper and harmonic vibrations).
  
DAVIT
Radial formed pole/luminaire arm.

DEAD LOAD
Total weight of structure and all added appurtenances.

DEFLECTION
Movement of the pole and/or arm, expressed as a displacement or rotation, resulting from dead loads or other applied loads.

DERATE
Recognizing a material's loss of physical or mechanical properties due to a manufacturing process such as welding.

DIE CASTING
The process where molten metal is forced under pressure into the cavity of a mold to form a desired shape such as a base flange or base casting.

DODECAGONAL
Cross-section consisting of 12 equal sides.

DRAG COEFFICIENT
A numerical factor used in wind force calculations. This factor is applied to the projected area of a structural member, lighting fixture, traffic signal, or other component to account for its shape.

DRILL PATTERN
Layout of hole size and spacing for a given fixture.

DUPLEX RECEPTACLE
Electrical component generally used in conjunction with Valmont festoon box.

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E

EFFECTIVE PROJECTED AREA (EPA)
Area of a given fixture and/or structure resisting wind force (projected area x appropriate drag coefficient).

ELEVATION
The distance which something is above or below sea level, ground level or other referenced surface. (i.e., highway, foundation, etc.)

ELLIPTICAL
Having the shape of an oval.

EMBEDDED POLE
Pole fixed into concrete or compacted soil by means of an extended portion.

EXTRUSION
The process of forcing material through a die to form a desired cross-section shape.

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F

FASTENER
A part used to attach or secure two components together. (i.e., bolt, nut, screw, etc.)

FERRULE
See "Tenon"

FESTOON BOX
Enclosure welded to a structure to accommodate the mounting of an electrical component.

FINIAL
A sculptured ornament located at pole top or end of arm.

FINIAL CAP
Cast or spun decorative pole top cap.

FINISH
A protective and usually decorative coating applied to structures and their components. (i.e., galvanizing, prime painting, finish painting, etc.)

FIXED BASE
Type of pole-to-foundation attachment not designed to breakaway if impacted by a vehicle.

FIXTURE
A lighting fixture, which provides artificial light.

FLANGE PLATE
Connection plate between two pole sections or bottom pole and arms.

FLOOD LIGHT
A lighting unit for projecting a broad beam of light. Used in parking lots, sports fields, and other area lighting applications.

FLUTING
The formation of rounded grooves using rollers or other means to create a decorative motif on the shaft or column.

FORCE
Vector quantity that tends to produce stress and deflection in the structure to which it is applied.

FOUNDATION
The earth-embedded support element for a pole structure, normally consisting of concrete, steel reinforcing bars and anchor bolts.

FRANGIBLE BASE
Pole base that is designed to breakaway when struck by a vehicle. (See also "Breakaway Coupling", "Transformer Base" and "Slip Base")

FULL BASE COVER
Decorative shroud used to enclose the base plate and anchor bolts.

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G

GALVANIZE
A zinc coating applied by a hot dip process or other approved method.

GASKET
A natural or synthetic rubber seal used between piece parts to prevent the intrusion of moisture.

GAUGE
A whole number representing an equivalent decimal thickness. (i.e., 11 = 0.1196, 7 = 0.1793, 3 = 0.2391)

GROMMET
A natural or synthetic rubber ring placed in drilled wireway holes to prevent chafing or damage to wires.

GROUNDING
Provision on pole for connecting a cable which makes an electrical connection with the earth.

GROUND STUD
A bolt attached to the inside of the hand hole providing the means for electrical grounding.

GROUT
A mortar used for filling space between the bottom of the pole baseplate and the top of the foundation.

GUSSET
Steel plate used to strengthen a welded connection.

GUST FACTOR
A numerical factor, usually 1.3, applied to a constant wind velocity to account for an instantaneous outburst of wind

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H

HANDHOLE
Reinforced opening providing internal access to a structure.

HARMONIC VIBRATION
A sustained back-and-forth motion of a member moving the same distance in opposite directions.

HEAT TREAT
Process of heating and cooling a material in a controlled manner to develop different mechanical properties.

HEXDECAGONAL
Cross-section consisting of sixteen equal sides.

HEXAGONAL
Cross-section consisting of six equal sides.

HEIGHT COEFFICIENT
A numerical factor applied to the design wind pressure to account for the increased wind pressure experienced due to smoother flow of air at higher elevations above ground.

HIGH MAST
Structures designed to light a large area by providing a point of fixture attachment higher than an average area lighting structure. A high mast pole is usually equipped with a lowering device system.

HINGED POLE
Structure design allowing ease of pole top access using a hinge by which the pole top can be lowered to ground level.

HSS
Hollow Structure Section.

       
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I

IMPACT ATTENUATOR
A device used on a safety climbing cable to reduce the severity of the jolt encountered when a falling person reaches the end of the safety belt lanyard.

ISOMETRIC DRAWING
A drawing in which three faces of a solid object are shown with the lines parallel to the edges and drawn in true length.

ISOTACH
A line on a map connecting points of equal wind speed. A gust factor is usually applied to the isotach wind speed.         
       
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J

J-HOOK
Steel rod formed into the shape of a "J" used for wire support or handling purposes.

JACKING LUGS
Steel nuts welded to a pole shaft to facilitate the process of slip fitting pole sections together.

JAM POLE
See "Laminated Shaft"               

JUNCTION BOX
In-ground plastic wiring enclosures.
       
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K

KEEPER PLATE
A thin steel plate (usually 20, 22 or 28 gauge) used to keep the connecting bolts of a slip base assembly in place.

KIP
Unit of measure equivalent to 1000 pounds.

KSI
Kips per Square Inch
       
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L

LADDER BAR
An ornamental tenon with provision for resting a ladder.

LAMINATED SHAFT

Tapered steel tube resulting from firmly pressing together two separate tubes, one inside the other, to increase wall thickness.

LIGHTNING ROD
Metallic rod attached to a pole structure creating a continuous conducting path to the ground to diminish the destructive effects of lightning.

LIQUID COAT
Finish applied to a material in a liquid form.

LIQUIDATED DAMAGES
The determination of liability by means of agreement or litigation as to the amount of indebtedness.

LMA
Luminaire Mast Arm

LOCK WASHER
A split washer used to prevent loosening by exerting pressure on a nut.

LOCKNUT
A nut tightened down on another, or a nut so constructed that it locks itself when tightened. Both types are used to prevent loosening.

LOWERING DEVICE
Apparatus capable of lowering fixtures to ground level for ease of maintenance.

LUG WASHER
Steel plate washer used in transformer base connections.

LUMINAIRE
A complete lighting unit.

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M

MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION
A non-destructive method of detecting cracks and other discontinuities at or near the surface in ferromagnetic materials (ASTM E709).

MANDREL FORMED
The manufacturing process used to produce round tapered tubes by forming steel coil around a mandrel.

MAST ARM
The horizontal member of a structure typically used to support luminaries, traffic signals or roadway signs.

MILD STEEL
Comparatively soft and easily worked steel capable of being extended or shaped.

MILL/MATERIAL CERTIFICATION
An official document issued by the steel mill stating the physical and chemical properties of the material supplied.

MOMENT
A force multiplied by the distance to the point of rotation. (See "Bending Moment")

MOMENT OF INERTIA
Physical property of a structural cross section used in the calculations of stresses and deflections. It is the summation of the products of element areas, multiplied by the square of their distance from a referenced line.

MOUNTING HEIGHT
Vertical distance to a particular part of a pole structure. (i.e., luminaire mounting height
           
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N

NEMA
National Electrical Manufacturers Association

NEMA BOX
An enclosure mounted to a pole used for breaker switches and terminal blocks. The name is derived from an enclosure being rated by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association.

NIPPLE
Externally threaded steel fitting used for wiring access and attachment of controller cabinets, junction boxes or other related devices.

NUT COVER
A decorative cast cover usually fastened to the pole covering the anchor bolt.

NUT HOLDER
A small bracket usually welded to the inside of a pole, designed to hold a 0.5 in. square nut used for grounding purposes.

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O

O-RING
A ring made from natural or synthetic rubber, used as an air-tight or water-tight seal. 

OBSTRUCTION LIGHT
A light mounted on a structure to warn aircraft of its presence. 

OCTAGONAL POLE
A pole having an eight-sided cross section.

ONE-PIECE SLIPOVER BASE
A one-piece shell base, which slips over the pole during installation.

OPTICON
Control device acting as a switch upon sensing motion or light.

ORIENTATION
The position of an appurtenance relative to the circumferential cross section of a pole/arm as measured in degrees from a reference point. (See also "Radial Index")

OVERTURNING MOMENT
Bending moment at the pole base used for foundation analysis. (See also "Bending Moment")

OXIDATION
The chemical reaction of a material when exposed to oxygen.

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P

P.E,C
Photo Electric Cell (See also "Opticon")

P.S.I.
Pounds per Square Inch

PAINTING SYSTEM
A series of processes involved in producing a desired finish.

PANEL BOX
See "Controller Cabinet"

PARAPET
A low retaining wall on a bridge or highway. Mounting poles on parapets usually requires special anchor bolt patterns.

PED POLE
A pole designed to support pedestrian signal heads.

PIPE
A hollow steel cylinder manufactured to a specific nominal inside diameter, wall thickness and yield strength.

PLANS
The portion of the contract document that depicts the project requirements by the use of drawings or illustrations.

POLE
The vertical member of a structure.

POLE TOP PLATE
A steel plate mounted to the top of a pole.

POLYCARBONATE
A lightweight thermoplastic that is used in the production of some traffic signal housings and back plates. Polycarbonate traffic signals have a high impact strength and are generally lighter in weight than a comparable aluminum traffic signal head.

POWDER COAT
An electrostatically applied dry powder coating, oven-baked for a smooth, durable finish.

PRODUCTION DRAWING
An illustration showing all of the details and information necessary to manufacture the product.

PROJECTED AREA
The surface area subjected to wind pressures.

PROJECTION
Length of anchor bolt protruding beyond the top of a foundation.
 
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R

RADIAL INDEX
An illustration showing the orientation of appurtenances. (See also "Orientation")

RAKE
The incline of a pole shaft from the vertical. A pole shaft is usually raked back to account for the deflection in the pole that will be caused by dead loads.

REBAR
Deformed steel reinforcing bar.

RECORD DRAWING
Formal drawing provided to customer showing final manufactured product.

RIV-NUT
Metal fastener serving as the female threaded portion of a bolted connection. This device is a blind nut which is very comparable in function to a household molley. Primarily used for luminaire arm attachment.

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S

S.O. CHORD
Sun and oil resistant electrical connection.

SAFETY BELT
Component of pole climbing device strapped around a person's body and attached to the safety cable.

SAFETY CABLE
Component of climbing device fixed at both ends of the pole structure providing attachment for the safety belt.

SAG
The distance a wire or cable droops from its attachment point. Usually expressed as a percentage of the span length.

SD
Single Davit pole with one arm.

SBC
Standard Building Code

SECTION MODULUS
Physical property of a structural cross section used in the calculation of stresses. The section modulus is the ratio of the moment of inertia to the farthest distance from the neutral axis.

SETBACK
Distance from the roadway edge to the location of the pole.

SFBC
South Florida Building Code

SHEAR FORCE
Force within a member that acts perpendicular to the axis of the member.

SHOE BASE
See "Fixed Base"

SHOEBOX
Slang term used for describing a rectangular shaped outdoor lighting fixture.

SIGN STRUCTURE
Structure designed to support signs, signals or other devices. These structures may be of the cantilever type or the bridge type.

SIMPLEX CONNECTION
A bolted flange connection rigidly attaching an arm to a pole shaft.

SLEEVE
An additional layer of steel wrapped around a specific area of a pole shaft serving one of two purposes: 1) enhancing corrosion resistance on embedded type poles at ground level; and 2) adding to, reinforcing, or replacing a pole's structural characterist

SLIP BASE ASSEMBLY
Device used to connect the pole to the anchor bolts, designed to breakaway when the pole is impacted by a vehicle. The main purpose being to assure passenger safety.

SLIP FITTER
A short piece of pipe/tube used as the internal portion of a connection.
SLIP-FIT CONNECTION (pole/arm splice)
A type of connection between two tapered shafts. The top section is designed to fit over the top of the lower section a specified distance, creating a tight friction connection.

SLOPE
As pertaining to deflection: angular deviation from a chosen line (usually the center line of the pole or arm) expressed in degrees or in inches per foot.

SMA
Signal Mast Arm

SPAN WIRE POLE
A pole used to support wires or cables from which traffic signals or signs are suspended. (Also called "Strain Pole")

SPECIFICATIONS
An organized listing of requirements for materials, products, design or testing. Specifications can be published nationally (i.e., AASHTO, ASTM, etc.); locally (i.e., state, city, county, etc.); or per project.

SPINNING PROCESS
Manufacturing process in which a straight non-tapered tube is spun about the longitudinal axis while forming bars and/or forming wheels produce a desired taper or shape.

SQUARE
Cross-section consisting of four equal sides.

SPOKE ARM
Luminaire mounting bracket designed with straight arms, with no upturn or upsweep from the point of attachment.

STATIC LOAD
A constant or non-varying load.

STEPS
Removable headed bolts fastened to pole shafts used for climbing.

STRAIN
Change in length of an object in one direction per unit of undisturbed length.

STRAIN POLE
See "Span Wire Pole"

STRESS
The internal force per unit area within a member, usually expressed in pounds per square inch (PSI).

STRUCTURAL BASE
A base welded to the shaft and contributes to the structural integrity of the pole.
 
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T

TAMPER RESISTANT SCREW
A screw with a specially designed head that requires a unique screw driver or wrench for removal or placement.

TAPER
Continuous gradual reduction of a shaft's diameter along its length from base to top. Taper is usually expressed in inches of diameter per foot of length.

TAPPING
The formation of an internal screw thread in a hole by means of a tap.

TEMPLATE
A guide or pattern used for the proper placement of anchor bolts or drilled holes.

TENON
Short length of pipe or tubing used to mount luminaries, signals or brackets.

TETHER
A second wire on a span wire pole used to hold the bottom of signals or signs in place when being acted upon by a wind force. The addition of this second wire increases the stress in the pole support.

TORQUE
The product of a force multiplied by the distance to the point of rotation causing a twisting action or twisting moment on a particular body. (See also "Torsional Moment")

TORSIONAL MOMENT
Action of external forces causing twist in a structure. (See also "Torque")

TRANSFORMER BASE
Steel or aluminum box-type assembly placed under a pole and used for wiring access or as a breakaway device (aluminum only).

TRANSMISSION POLE
A pole structure designed to carry high voltage power lines over great distances.

TRUSS ARM
Arm style that incorporates two main supporting members with one or more struts between them. This type of arm is most commonly used for Luminaire pipe arms that exceed eight foot in length.

TUBE
Generic term used for hollow steel shafts.

TURN OF THE NUT METHOD
A method described in the AISC Steel Construction Manual for the proper method of tightening nuts on bolts.

TURNKEY
Responsibility of a single contractor or representative to supply and install materials completed and ready for operation for an entire project.
                       
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U

U-BOLT
Type of bolt that is shaped in the form of a "U" and threaded on both ends.

ULTRA COATING
Finish coating system offered by Valmont that provides a maximum corrosion resistance finish and backed by a ten year warranty.

UPRIGHT
Slang term referring to the vertical pipe portion of a sports lighting cage.
                       
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V

VEHICLE POLE
A pole designed to support vehicular and/or ped signal heads.

VIBRATION DAMPER
A device that is placed on or inside a pole or arm to reduce or prevent harmonic vibration caused by wind 
                       
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W

WIND LOADING
Live load pressures of wind acting on a structure.

WIND SPEED
Velocity of wind (MPH) noted either as a basic/isotach speed or as a gust/maximum velocity.

WROUGHT ALLOY
The compound mixture of base elements which form a material whose physical and mechanical properties favor wrought (beaten into shape) manufacturing processes.

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XTREME™ BASE
A base made of elastomeric polyurethane material. It may be either clamshell or slipover type base.                                

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Y

YIELD
The stress in a material at which plastic deformation occurs.

YIELD MOMENT
The moment in a pole or arm that will cause the member to yield

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